This island was taken by a Genoese, called Simon Vignosius, and was mostly governed by the family
of the Justiniani from Genoa.
Richard Pococke - A Description of the East and Some Other Countries - 1745
In the XVIIIth century the East India Companies of England, France and the Netherlands ruled over many coastal towns and their neighbouring territories in India, Indochina and Indonesia. An early example of such a mixture of trade and politics can be found in the Maona Giustiniani which ruled over the island of Scio (Chios), in the Aegean Sea for more than two centuries (1347-1566).
Maona is a word most likely of Arab origin, after either maounach (business) or mauna (help). All the families having a share in this company added to their surname that of Giustiniani to underline a Greek origin, making a reference to Justinian, the great Byzantine emperor.
I Embarked on board a French ship at Canea on the first of October,
one thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine, and sailing in sight of
most of the islands, landed at Scio on the fourth. The island of
Scio is now called by the Greeks Kio, the antient Greek name of
it was Chios; it was also called Mastic, on account of the great number of mastic trees that were in
this island. It is situated to the west of that large promontory, which
makes the southern part of the bay of Smyrna which is to the north, and the north part of the bay of Ephesus: Where it is nearest to the continent, it is only eight miles distant; the north part of it is all mountainous. (..) From the high lands I discovered what they told
me was Monte Santo but I rather took it to be Stalimene (Limnos): And here we
saw Sciro, the Negropont, Andros, and Tine. Pococke
In the XIVth century the Genoese were competing with the Venetians for control of the trading routes in the Levant and in the Black Sea. Venice had a firm hold on Negroponte and Candia (Crete) and Genoa needed a secure trading post along the route to Constantinople. Therefore in 1346 the Republic decided to occupy the island of Scio and the nearby port of Fochies on the Asian mainland.
Because the finances of the Republic were in very poor health some rich traders were asked for loans to be repaid after the completion of the expedition. Eventually on February 26, 1347 the Republic granted to these traders the revenues of Scio and Fochies allowing them to directly manage the exploitation of the two territories for an initial period of 29 years. The traders founded the Maona Giustiniani and later on obtained an extension of the initial "lease".
Main gate and tower protecting it
The castle is to the north of the bay, which is
about half a mile in compass; it is inhabited only by Turks and Jews,
and is often a place of confinement for state prisoners who are sent from
Constantinople. (..) To the north of it is Palaiocastro, or the old town,
so that probably the antient city was on the north side of the port. Pococke
Whatever might have been the remains of ancient architecture, no traces are now to be discovered ; all have yielded to time, or more probably to the more effectual destruction of misguided zeal or appropriation.
James Dallaway - Constantinople Ancient and Modern with Excursions to the Shores of the Islands of the Archipelago and to the Troas - 1797
Unlike many other Greek towns, Scio was not built on high ground providing a natural defence; it did not have an acropolis, a citadel where the inhabitants could oppose an effective resistance to the assaults of the enemy. The image used as background for this page shows an ancient relief.
The Genoese found some Byzantine fortifications, but eventually decided to build a new set of walls, which would protect their new acquisition. In the XIVth century several powers were competing with Genoa for the supremacy in the Aegean Sea: first of all Venice with its many fortresses on the Greek mainland and on Crete, then the declining Byzantine Empire, weak from a military viewpoint and torn apart by dynastic quarrels, but rich in gold and diplomatic skills; it was usually at peace with the Genoese, but occasionally it made alliances with Venice against them. Franks, Catalans, Neapolitans, Florentines, all having some possessions, either on the Greek mainland or on the islands, were other players in the game. On the Asian side of the Aegean Sea in the meantime, the Ottomans were laying the foundations of their great empire. Genoa, Venice, the Byzantine Empire, all sought alliances with them as they provided a valiant military force, on the assumption that their lack of naval skills would have always hindered their expansion. It was with the help of the Genoese fleet that they initially set foot in Europe in 1354.
Tower bearing the coats of arms of Genoa (cross) and of the Giustiniani (eagle above tower); see other coats of arms of the Giustiniani near Rome; the Genoese built also a tower at Cismes on the mainland opposite Scio
The town is situated
about the middle of a shallow bay on the east side of the island; to the
south of it is that fine country called the Campo, and a narrower strip
to the north called Livadia. (..) The town is well
built, there being many fine houses in it of hewn stone, inhabited by
the Italian families who remained here, and by the rich Greeks; many of which were built in the time of the Genoese government. Pococke
In 1453 when Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II launched his attack against Constantinople, the Genoese colony of Galata declared its neutrality, but a Genoese contingent of volunteers from Scio went to Constantinople to join the limited forces of the Emperor. They were led by a gallant young knight called Giovanni Giustiniani Longo, who played a crucial role in the siege of the city, until his being wounded during the final Ottoman assault signalled the forthcoming defeat.
Towers strengthened by the Venetians
The Genoese fortifications of Scio included a very deep moat, which isolated the town with the exception of one point of access. After the fall of Constantinople, Genoa had to come to terms with Mehmet II. Because he rightly saw that only Venice could actually challenge his expansion aims, he preferred to establish a good relationship with Genoa and Scio was not threatened by the Ottomans. However, Maona Giustiniani had to agree to pay yearly the Sultan a large amount of gold and to grant him a supply of mastic, a gum exuding from the bark of a tree grown in the southern part of the island.
Maritime walls and tower at the north-eastern corner
The Turks became masters of the island in
one thousand five hundred sixty-six, the Christians remaining in possession of the castle till one thousand five hundred ninety-five, when the Florentine galleys under Virginio Ursinio, making an attempt to recover
the island were repulsed, and the Christians disposed of the castle. Pococke
Maona Giustiniani continued to rule Scio until 1566, when a delay in the payment of the yearly tax gave Sultan Suleyman the Great the pretext to make his last conquest. Apparently there was little resistance, but when the Ottomans requested enrolling in the janissary corps one youth per family, some Giustiniani refused and eighteen of them were slaughtered in what was called the massacre of Scio.
Detail of "The Massacre of Scio" by Francesco Solimena at a temporary exhibition at Scuderie del Quirinale.
"Although carefully constructed, many of his multi-figured compositions make the impression of an inextricable melée, in line with the general tendencies of the Late Baroque. But if one takes the trouble of surveying figure by figure, their studied poses and academic manner is evident, and it is easy to distinguish conventional and even canonical figures and groups deriving from such acknowledged classical authorities as Carracci, Domenichino, and even Raphael." Rudolf Wittkower - Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750
In Italy the event was portrayed by many painters and in particular by Francesco Solimena whose painting is one of the masterpieces of Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte in Naples.
The wealthiest Giustiniani families chose to leave the island. Giuseppe Giustiniani moved to Rome, where his brother-in-law Cardinal Vincenzo Giustiniani (a Giustiniani of a different branch) introduced him to the papal court. He married his three daughters to members of the Roman aristocracy and his son became a cardinal in 1586. In 1590 he bought Palazzo Giustiniani and in 1595 the fief of Bassano.
Overall life did not change very much in Scio: the Ottomans forced the Genoese to abandon their houses in the fortified town, but they retained most of the land they owned and Scio continued to be a prosperous island where Turks, Greeks, Latins and Jews lived if not in harmony, at least without major frictions.
About forty-five years ago the Venetians took this island, but held it
only six months, and were forced to yield it again to the Turks, leaving only about thirty soldiers in the castle, who were soon subdued by
the conquerors. Pococke
Things changed in September 1694: in 1685-1686, under the leadership of Francesco Morosini, the Venetians had conquered Morea and in 1687 they had seized Athens, while their allies, the Emperor of Austria and the King of Poland, had inflicted several defeats on the Ottomans in the Balkans. These events led to the deposition of Sultan Mehmet IV. Under his successors Suleyman II and Ahmet II the Ottomans were able to partially offset their losses and the conflict came to a phase of stalemate with both parties unable to reach a final victory or to agree on peace terms.
The Venetians made unsuccessful attempts to conquer Negroponte and then La Canea. In 1694 the Venetian commanders decided to try to capture Scio to force the Sultan to accept a peace. The conquest of Scio was relatively easy and the Venetians were welcomed by the prevalent Greek population: the news raised a lot of enthusiasm in Venice and soon the Venetian commander Alessandro Zeno started to strengthen the fortifications of Scio by modifying the structure of the five towers which protected the walls to enable them able to resist Ottoman cannon. In doing so he most likely required both forced labour and heavy taxes from the local population alienating support for the Venetian cause.
The war went on because the loss of Scio, although a blow to the pride of the Sultan, had no strategic impact. Alessandro Zeno realized that his communication lines were now very long and that keeping the Venetian fleet in Scio exposed Morea to Ottoman attacks. In February 1695 he suddenly decided to abandon Scio and to retreat with the fleet to Morea. The Ottomans were called back by the Greeks and their vengeance fell on the Latins whose rights and privileges were suppressed. Alessandro Zeno was summoned to Venice and put in jail where he died two years later. You may wish to read a more detailed account of these events.
Turkish tombs and a Turkish fountain in the old town
They compute that there are a hundred thousand inhabitants, of which
half are in the city, and in the villages about the plain, and of these
three thousand are Roman catholics, who are all of Genouese extraction,
and call themselves Italians. (..) The Greeks and Roman Catholics have a
great aversion to one another, and those of one profession are not Christians in the judgment of the other. Pococke
The present government may be called the paradise of the Greeks, who are the principal inhabitants both in number and affluence. It is here that their national character is expanded without restraint, and that they are allowed to enjoy their wealth with a greater degree of security. Could they be content with private life, their happiness might be unmolested; but their spirit for intrigue and aggrandissement perpetually tempts them to seek connexions with the Porte, or its enemies. Dallaway
In 1822 in the frame of the general rebellion against the Ottomans which was launched in 1821 in Patras and Kalamata, the Greeks of Scio made an attempt to free the island from the Ottoman yoke, but the revolt failed and the vengeance was particularly cruel as the Sultan regarded the rebellion as treason, considering the privileges granted to Scio. The massacre of maybe 25,000 Greeks had an enormous impact on European public opinion and increased its philhellenic mood. One of the masterpieces of French painter Eugene Delacroix portrayed the massacre and was exhibited at the Salon in 1824; it is now at the Louvre in Paris.
In 1884 a major earthquake destroyed most of the houses inside the walls and accelerated the decline of the town. In 1912 the island was annexed to the Kingdom of Greece, but this caused a worsening of its economy and, eventually in 1923, when Greece and the newly born Republic of Turkey signed a peace treaty in Lausanne, all the ties the island had had for centuries with the nearby Asian coast were severed: a sort of iron curtain fell between the two countries, which hopefully in recent years appears to be dissolving.
Discover why Scio was so rich. Go to page two.